Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

5.2 Involvement in the training and communication of the performance evaluation process is demonstrated.

ryanrori January 12, 2021

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Most newcomers in a business are not really prepared to perform their new tasks well.  Someone who holds a technical or professional qualification still needs initial orientation regarding the policies, procedures and practices of the organisation.  The training process, therefore begins with the orientation programme.

The aims of training and development

The concepts of training and development are often taken to mean the same thing, yet they refer to two different activities within the business.

Training is the systematic process by which the employee acquires knowledge, skills, aptitudes and information necessary to achieve the objectives of the business.  The aim of training is to influence and change employees working habits and levels of performance in such a way that they will become more productive.  Training is, therefore, directed at tasks which are in line with the objectives of the business.
Development is the process whereby managers or potential managers acquire the necessary experience management skills and aptitudes to function successfully as mangers.  This process prepares the individual for further career development and promotion.  An effective manager in any business abreast of the latest developments in the areas of technology, economics, politics and management practices.

The basic objectives of training and development are:

To orientate new employees with regard to their tasks

To improve performance and increase productivity

To maintain a performance level in spite of changes in the work itself or in technology

To prepare the employee for promotion

Before any training can be undertaken, you should first determine whether there is really a need for training.  An employee may be experiencing personal problems and his/her work may suffer as a result.  A supervisor may not know this and may mistakenly identify the problem as lack of knowledge or skills.  Training costs time and money and you should therefore ensure that it is not undertaken unnecessarily.

Drawing up a training programme

When you draw up a training programme, the following steps can be used:

Determine training needs

Before training can commence, a needs assessment should be done.  These needs are related to the technical, administrative, management as well as other skills which employees may require to perform their duties productively.  It is the responsibility of the direct supervisor to identify these needs.

There are different ways to identify the needs such as:

The employee is asked to say whether he/she feels unqualified to carry out a task effectively due to a lack of knowledge and/or skills.  Although this is not a scientific method to determine training needs and does not provide for long-term needs, it is a practical method which can be used profitably in combination with other methods.

Interviews, where the human resource manager conducts interviews with supervisors, key people and employees in the business to ascertain whether any training needs exist.

Questionnaire: this is a scientific method of ascertaining training needs and results obtained from it are usually comprehensive and based on fact.

Management by objectives:  this technique provides ongoing information regarding the work and progress of the employee.  You should, therefore, be able to see immediately whther an employee needs training.

The above are active techniques to determine whther there is a need for training.  Sometimes, circumstances or problems arising in a business may indicate training needs.  Specific problem areas which need to be investigated include low productivity, high costs, poor quality, high wastage, grievances, a high staff turnover, poor discipline, rule-breaking, a high absenteeism rate and standards that are not being achieved

Establish the objectives for the training programme (including the type of training)

 Write down what you wish to achieve with the training.  Be specific and use standards so that your objectives are measurable.  The difference between what the worker is supposed to do (see job description) and what he or she can actually do may also be used as a basis for the training programme.  Do the employees need basic training, such as training in the use of the telephone or more specific training, such as training to enable them to use a new computer programme?

Determine suitable training methods

Decide whether you will make use of lectures, in service training, videos, case studies or other methods.  Are you going to instruct, facilitate or both?  If the training know-how is already in the business, you can do it internally, otherwise make use of external training specialists.

Present the training or end employees for the training

Decide whether it is best to carry out the training on-site, or to send your employees to another venue

Evaluate the training

Determine whether the set objectives have been achieved.  If not, you will have to reassess the trainer, method, objectives and standards (or all of these).

Human resource management is not only getting people to work for a business and training them to do the work well, but keeping them motivated and working productively on a continuous basis.