Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

2.1 Microsoft Windows is identified and used.

ryanrori January 11, 2021

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Getting to know the Windows operating system is a lengthy process, but once you have mastered the following, then you are well on track already:


The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fibre optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

Web sites

A website (also spelled web site) is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that are addressed with a common domain name or IP address in an Internet Protocol-based network. A web site is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via the Internet or a private local area network. A web page is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). A web page may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the web page content. The user’s application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the homepage.

Internet service providers

An Internet service provider (ISP, also called Internet access provider, or IAP) is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol data-grams, such as dial-up, DSL, cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects. ISPs may provide Internet e-mail accounts to users which allow them to communicate with one another by sending and receiving electronic messages through their ISP’s servers. (As part of their e-mail service, ISPs usually offer the user an e-mail client software package, developed either internally or through an outside contract arrangement.) ISPs may provide other services such as remotely storing data files on behalf of their customers, as well as other services unique to each particular ISP.

Electronic mail

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages, designed primarily for human use. E-mail systems are based on a store-and-forward model in which e-mail computer server systems accept, forward, deliver and store messages on behalf of users, who only need to connect to the e-mail infrastructure, typically an e-mail server, with a network-enabled device (e.g., a personal computer) for the duration of message submission or retrieval. Rarely is e-mail transmitted directly from one user’s device to another’s. An electronic mail message consists of two components, the message header, and the message body, which is the email’s content. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator’s email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually additional information is added, such as a subject header field.

WAP technology

Wireless Application Protocol (commonly referred to as WAP) is an open international standard for application layer network communications in a wireless communication environment. Its main use is to enable access to the Mobile Web from a mobile phone or PDA.

Create new folders

Creating new folders are one of the most important ways in the sorting and arranging of your data and information on the computer. This can be done by simply right clicking on your mouse and then selecting the option of “Create a New Folder”. The new folder will then be created in the area where your mouse curser was active. Once the new folder has been created, you can right click on it again and then name it according to your needs, or the data or type of data that you will be storing in the folder.

Move files

Moving files is another manner in which you can arrange and sort your data on your computer. Files can either be dragged between windows and areas, or you can right click on the folder or file and then select the copy option from the list. Then select the area where you want to move the folder to and select the paste option. The folder as well as its contents will then be moved to your selected area.

Format diskettes

Formatting a disk is done for three reasons: firstly a quick format is done to erase all the current data which is stored on the disk; doing a complete format, you will not only delete the data on the disk, but also clear and rearrange all the required files on the disk, meaning that the data will be lost; thirdly, a disk is formatted to arrange another file system on it. Newer types of hard drives and operating systems require the drives to be formatted with an NTFS file system, rather than the older FAT32 system. NTFS has several improvements over FAT and HPFS (High Performance File System) such as improved support for metadata and the use of advanced data structures to improve performance, reliability, and disk space utilization, plus additional extensions such as security access control lists (ACL) and file system journaling.

Open files and folders

Opening files and folders can be done by selecting the folder where the files are in and then either double-clicking the left mouse button, or single clicking the right mouse button and then selecting the open function. You can also select the explore function on the menu when you right click on the folder, this will show you the files and folders which are stored in that particular folder.

Find files

Finding files and folders in your computer can be done by using the “Search” option. Simply type in the name of the file or folder in the search bar from the search option and then click search or press enter. The search options will then display the various results that the computer has found and you can select the correct item from there. 

Recycle bin

Microsoft introduced the Recycle Bin in the Windows 95 operating system. The Recycle Bin keeps some files that have been deleted, whether accidentally or intentionally. Whether a deleted file is put into the Recycle Bin depends on how it is deleted; typically only files deleted via the Explorer graphical interface (but not necessarily other Windows graphical interfaces such as file selection dialogs) will be put into the Recycle Bin. You can review the contents of the Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently.

The Recycle Bin holds data that not only lists deleted files, but also the date, time and the path of those files. The Recycle Bin is opened like an ordinary Windows Explorer folder and the files are viewed similarly. Deleted files may be removed from the Recycle Bin by restoring them with a command, or by deleting them permanently. The Recycle Bin’s icon indicates whether there are items in the Recycle Bin. If there are no files or folders in the Recycle Bin, then the icon resembles an empty wastepaper basket. Otherwise if there are files and/or folders the icon resembles a full wastepaper basket.

Prior to Windows Vista, the default configuration of the Recycle Bin was to hold 10% of the total capacity of the host hard disk drive. For example, on a hard drive with a capacity of 20 gigabytes, the Recycle Bin will hold up to 2 gigabytes. If the Recycle Bin fills up to maximum capacity, the oldest files will be deleted in order to accommodate the newly deleted files. If a file is too large for the Recycle Bin, the user will be prompted to permanently delete the file instead

Information within a window is correctly resized and moved. 

Move your cursor to the bottom right of the window. You will see the cursor change appearance. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the window to the size you want. If you want the window to open this size every time you open it hold down the Ctrl key then click the x at the upper right to close the window. You can also enlarge the view of the information you are viewing in the current window by simply selecting a larger percentage of the viewing option. This option is usually in the bottom right hand corner of your current window.

Menus and dialogue boxes are correctly used. 

Application windows allow all to minimize, maximize and close operations through the buttons on the title bar. When opening an application you will usually see a window of this type appear. Dialog windows appear at the request of an application window.

A dialog window may alert you to a problem, ask for confirmation of an action, or request input from you .For example, if you tell an application to save a document, a dialog will ask you where you want to save the new file.

If you tell an application to quit while it is still busy, it may ask you to confirm that you want it to abandon work in progress. Some dialogs do not allow you to interact with the main application window until you have closed them: these are called modal dialogs. Others can be left open while you work with the main application window: these are called transient dialogs.