Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

3.3. Various methods of communication

ryanrori December 31, 2020

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Written methods of communication make use of definite signs and symbols when presenting information in either a verbal context or in a written context. 

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Various methods of communication. Verbal Messages

Signs and symbols


Facial expressions


Tone of voice

Eye contact

Body language (way you dress, walk, stand, react, respond, move your body, etc),

Pace and pitch- tone of voice

Command of language

Choice of words




Sign language (for the deaf)


Face to face





Informal discussions





Social groups

The grapevine



Intercom system




Panel discussion


Films, DVD, CD

Training programmes


Sign language


Effective verbal communication is very important to all of us.  To communicate effectively the whole personality should be adapted to the effort of arousing certain thoughts and feelings in the mind of the listener.

It is to the speaker’s advantage to be face to face with his audience as his nonverbal cues such as mannerisms, gestures and facial expressions help to project his personality and assist him to remain in contact with his audience.


Noise is distraction that reduces the effectiveness of the communication process.  Noise can be anything that causes the message to be misheard or misinterpreted:

  • The receiver not listening to the communicator and the message.
  • The communicator not formulating the message properly.
  • Actual noise, such as a car horn or a bus passing so that the recipient cannot hear the message.
  • Misuse of language so that the message is obscured.
  • Talking while the communicator is conveying the message – you cannot listen while you are talking.
  • Someone else interrupting the receiver while the receiver is receiving the message.

All the above can go wrong during the feedback process as well.  Feedback is an essential part of communication and must never be underestimated.  The communication process is not complete until feedback is given.

Below is an example of two small children talking and it shows how noise can distort the message and the feedback and lead to immense misunderstanding:

Ronnie: “I am going to sing for you on your birthday.”

Alex:” Is it my birthday?  Where are my sweets?”

Ronnie: “I don’t know where your sweets are.

Alex: “But then they must also give me sweets at school and sing to me at school.  Are you also going to sing to me at my school?”

Ronnie:” No, I am not going to school with you, I don’t want to go to your school.”

Alex:”But that’s not what I’m asking you.”

Ronnie” But I don’t want to go to your school.”

Alex: ’But that’s not what I’m asking you.

Ronnie” But I don’t want to go to your school.”

The children involved were three and four years old and the example might seem silly but adults can also miscommunicate in the same way: noise distorts the message, both the communicator and recipient get the wrong impression and before you know it, an argument between two people erupts.

As a manager, one of your functions will be communication and you will have to ensure that you improve your communication skills to such an extent that you can identify noise and the impact it can have on communication so that you can identify whenever a message or feedback is distorted.

This means that when you as the manager are the communicator, you have the responsibility to ensure that the recipient understands the message.  When you are the recipient you have to ensure that you understand the message correctly.

In any organisation you would find internal and external communication.

External communication

This is communication between the organisation and the environment outside the organisation.  This would be communication to clients, competitors and government organisations.  Advertisements, promotions, press releases, public gatherings, quotes, invoices, payment advices are examples of external communication.

Internal communication

Intrapersonal communication

This is communication with yourself – your thoughts about your work, your colleagues, your family and so on.  In the environment of an organisation this would be when managers receive, process and transmit information to themselves.  This is not so silly as it sounds: when you note an appointment in your diary, reminders of the diary and preparation for the appointment would all be intrapersonal communication.

Interpersonal communication

Is communication between two or more people on a person to person basis.  This would include meetings, interviews, telephone calls, e-mails and memos.

Organisational communication

This is communication between different departments or companies in the same organisation.  This would also include meetings between departments or companies, memos, e-mails and telephone calls to other departments.