Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

3.2. Logical sequencing of ideas and overall unity are achieved through redrafting.

ryanrori December 29, 2020

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Major Problems in Drafts That Writers Must Attend to and Correct

Inappropriate organisation for readers’ needs and goodwill – work does not address what readers need to know first, second, and third and fails to anticipate their reactions (positive, negative, neutral) to the ideas and information presented.

Problems with graphics – clarity is compromised; writer fails to provide appropriate graphics for the reader’s needs or level of understanding or fails to explain how the reader should interpret the graphics.

Minor Problems in Drafts That Writers Should Make Every Effort to Correct

Graphics that are not quite as professional looking as they should be.

       There is clear evidence that major grammatical and linguistic errors are edited out in redrafts.

Major Problems in Drafts That Writers Must Attend to and Correct

•        Unclear purpose – writer and reader miss-communicate about what the writer’s intentions are in the document; the reader concludes that the writer does not have a real purpose for writing.

•        Inaccurate, unsupported, or out-of-date information – reader bases decisions on wrong information, with the result that the reader looks foolish and the writer’s credibility is ruined.

Minor Problems in Drafts That Writers Should Make Every Effort to Correct

•        Occasional wordiness

 Inappropriate or potentially offensive language is identified and adapted/removed. 

Major Problems in Drafts That Writers Must Attend to and Correct

Inappropriate methods – writer constructs invalid surveys, interviews inappropriate respondents, or otherwise generates erroneous information from unreliable sources (this weakness typically demands a start-over, but some inappropriate methodology and the information it generates can occasionally be salvaged).

Inflated or deflated style – writer uses an inappropriate level of formality for the audience, uses vocabulary that is too colloquial or too pompous for the audience, or creates unclear, wordy, or tactless communications.

       Experimentation with different layouts and options for presentation is appropriate to the nature and purpose of the task. 

Document layout


You must show you understand different forms of document layout. For example, each of the following types of document uses a different layout:

  • memos
  • publicity flyers
  • screen displays
  • agendas
  • business cards
  • business letters
  • newsletters
  • minutes
  • fax header pages
  • e-mails
  • itineraries
  • reports

There are common standard layouts for most documents. The different features of layout include:

  • page size and orientation
  • paragraph format
  • margins
  • headers and footers
  • line spacing
  • fonts

The position on the page of important items in the document is also part of layout, including:

  • logos
  • headings
  • references
  • dates
  • addressee names
  • signatures

You will need to think about why commercial organisations use a standard layout for business documents. You will look at how different organisations use different layouts for the same type of document, including the following commonly used documents:

  • invoices
  • orders
  • delivery notes
  • letters
  • memos
  • advertisements
  • newspapers
  • agendas
  • minutes

Presentation techniques


It is important to present information clearly. Poorly presented information may annoy or confuse readers. A common error is not keeping to a consistent style for headings in a document. You should also think about what you want to achieve with your document and what will appeal to your readers. There are many features that you can use to help create effective documents. They include:

  • layout grids
  • templates
  • use of white space
  • titles and headings
  • fonts and sizes
  • bold and italic text
  • hanging indents
  • tables and tabs
  • upper and lower case
  • subscript and superscript
  • graphics
  • colour
  • borders and shading
  • dividing lines (rules)
  • bulleted lists
  • justification
  • columns
  • special symbols
  • headers and footers
  • charts and graphs
  • contents and indexes

You will need to know how and when to use these techniques in a document. You may need  to create a number of documents before you can use them well.

You will also need to learn to:

  • use existing information
  • create original information
  • blend existing and original information
  • combine different types of information.
  • maintain a consistent style of writing and presentation.